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How to Craft Content for the Healthy Male Audience

The healthy male is a busy man. He’s balancing work, regular gym visits, healthy cooking, and an active social life all at once. He doesn’t spend a lot of time staring at screens, so when he does, you don’t have too much time to grab his attention.

Writing your content with the healthy male in mind can seem daunting. It’s easy to flourish your writing with interesting statistics, links, and personable writing, but these don’t always appeal to the average male.

There are a few tips and tricks, though, that can help you engage even the toughest of readers. Keep reading to learn how to craft content for the healthy male audience.

Creating Content For The Healthy Male

Write Authoritatively

Studies show that women speak differently than men. Women tend to use apologetic language. They use terms like “I just…” and “I’m no expert, but…” out of an inexplicable need to apologize and take up as little space as possible.

You won’t often catch a male with an issue about sending his salad back at a restaurant if it’s too heavily dressed. Men tend to own their authority more proudly than women, and they respond to similarly to language targeted at them.

Written copy from different gender perspectives are so different, there’s even a Chrome app in development that will locate and remove apologetic language from women’s emails.

Note the authoritative voice in this article. The tone of the writing makes the reader sit up and pay attention. That’s the goal when writing for men.

Write proudly, avoid apologetic language, and assert your claims strongly. This is the language that men use and respond to in their everyday lives. Simplifying your language to remove excess fluff can help you reach this goal.

Simplify

Authoritative language is normal language with the fat trimmed. Men aren’t simple- they’re just not as talkative as women. Generally, they prefer to operate inside their minds, saying only what’s necessary, while women prefer to think out loud.

Consider this function when writing copy for men. Cutting your language down to the bare bones is best for men’s language processing. Check out this article on men’s gym wear- note the simplicity and directness of the language.

When writing, you might try inserting a target URL into your content more directly, for instance, rather than naturally and organically.

For example: say you’re writing content for a target audience of a healthy male about health supplements. You want to include a section about TextX Core, a men’s testosterone booster. Instead of sneaking a link into a well-crafted paragraph, you could write it simply and directly, like so:

“Let’s cut to the chase. Is TestX Core safe?

After learning a little about the product, men want their questions answered. A direct and straightforward link will appeal to men’s desires for simple, concise, and helpful copy.

Are You Hitting The Healthy Male Target Audience?

If your inbound marketing skills need some touching up, sign up– it’s free! We have over 23,000 professional writers to help reach your target audience and tons of tips and tricks on our blog.

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How to Choose the Perfect Kitchen Island

It is finally time to get rid of your hideous nineties wallpaper and rip out the linoleum floors you’ve hated since the day you moved in. You have been waiting so long for this moment. Now is the time you will finally get the kitchen island you deserve.

As the focal point of the room, the island will have a huge impact on your space. You will need to consider your choice carefully, taking into mind the size and materials that make the most sense in your kitchen.

When you are choosing an island there are several important factors to think about. Keep reading to learn what you need to know so you can choose the perfect kitchen island.

Deciding What You Need in a Kitchen Island

The first factor to consider is whether or not there will be children using the space. An island can make an excellent place to do homework. You could be right across the room cooking dinner, easily able to answer any questions your youngster might have.

If there will be children you should consider adding some sort of bar to allow them to sit at the island comfortably.

Height Of Kitchen Island

The most important factor related to your island will be its height. You will want to consider the height of your children, but also know that they will grow. Unless you need a handicap accessible kitchen, you should purchase an island of the average size, 36 inches.

If you are going to have people sitting at your island, you will want to make things a little bit taller. Note that it is recommended to select barstools at the same time as your island if you plan to have them. It can be difficult to find the style you like in the right size after the fact.

If you want to check to make sure your island is the perfect height visit a kitchen showroom Sacramento. By seeing the options in person you will have a better idea of what you want to buy for your home.

Wood Or Metal

Based on whether you choose a wood or metal look, you will give your kitchen a drastically different feel.

Metal is very easy to clean and can give your kitchen an industrial and professional appearance. You may start asking all your friends to start calling you chef. It is a practical choice that if cared for will last you years to come.

Wood, on the other hand, needs to be treated in certain ways before you can clean it easily. You will want to decide whether you intend to use the surface as a cutting board before making your decision on treatments.

Considering Bacteria

If you do choose a wood surface you should recognize the fact that it could harbor bacteria easily if the coating is damaged. You will want to make sure you are purchasing a high-quality product to be sure your family’s health stays safe.

Additional Storage

When you redesign your kitchen you should try to maximize your storage space. An island is an opportunity for you to have customized cabinetry without having to really consider the layout of the room. You can make spaces for anything you want from little-hidden doors to in-island wine coolers.

Conclusion

If you are renovating your kitchen you should consider installing a kitchen island. There are a lot of options on the market, so make sure you consider what material will work best for your needs.

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CC Certs Team by Creative Commons, CC BY

In order to better teach open tools and practices to communities around the world, Creative Commons has developed open educational resources and a certification program called the CC Certificate. CC’s Senior Counsel Sarah Hinchliff Pearson is now leading the project with a group of researchers, writers, and instructional designers. The project is funded by the Gates Foundation and the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS).

The CC Certificate program is a training program that leads people through the basics about the organization, copyright law, and the CC tools. The goal is to equip people with the knowledge and skills they need to advocate for and support adoption of CC licensing in their work and creative pursuits.

There are a wealth of opportunities to tailor the certificate to specific audiences. Initially we’re focusing on two groups: academic librarians and educators. The certificate for these two segments will run as a 12-week online course on Canvas, facilitated by an instructor fluent in the issues and opportunities surrounding CC licensing and open collaboration. The majority of the content will cover the basics of copyright and open licensing, and participants will be expected to choose either the academic librarian or educator track because the final unit will be domain-specific. The content will include online discussions, quizzes, and learning activities throughout to help solidify concepts and allow learners to demonstrate their understanding. The course will be entirely online, but CC may eventually offer an optional in-person session as a capstone offering at the end of the course. Upon successful completion, students will receive a certificate from Creative Commons.

Of course, the underlying course content will be freely available to the public and CC-licensed, including text, images, and videos. The content covers Creative Commons as a whole – the organization, the tools, and the movement. We are treating this as a chance to tell the full story of what CC is and what we do. The materials include sections on the basics of copyright law, many of the ins and outs of CC licenses, practical information about how to use the licenses and how to use CC-licensed work, information about the values connected to use of CC, and case studies about what it looks like in the real world. For a full preview of the course topics, see the current syllabus here.

The full beta test of the 12-week course will begin in January, with the official certification program launching after the Global Summit from April 13-15 in Toronto, Canada. We will be running one library-specific track and one education-specific track during the beta phase and will be asking participants to help us evaluate and shape the content. If you are interested in participating, please fill out this interest form.

We expect the CC Global Network will play a crucial role in this program. In the future, we hope network members can be certified in order to help run the course in their parts of the world.

Over the course of the next year, we will be exploring customization of the project for three different audiences: GLAM professionals, lawyers, and governments. An early, abbreviated version of the certificate beta has already been delivered to more than 150 academic librarians in the US, with great success. We are anxious to expand the program to fit a greater variety of professions, and to work with and empower the future leaders of the commons. Any questions, comments, or suggestions? Get in touch with us via Slack or Twitter.

For even more CC content, please sign up for our email list.

The post CC Certificates spring into action appeared first on Creative Commons.

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How Solar Thermal Panels Help Schools Save Money

Renewable sources of energy are essential for ensuring a sustainable future. But that’s just one of many upsides to installing solar thermal panels.

The savings to be had by switching to solar are immense and large institutions stand to save the most. Here are a few ways solar thermal panels can help schools and colleges save money.

School Layouts Mean a More Cost-Effective Installation

Unsuitable roofs are one of the biggest arguments against solar panels. Angled installations don’t get consistent sun and residential areas are more shaded. This means a solar system installation is less cost-effective than it could be.

Schools don’t have this problem. The typical layout of a school is perfect for solar installation. School buildings often have flat roofs and plenty of unshaded space. This means greater solar panel output and greater savings for the school.

Reduced Operating Costs

The cost of energy consumption is calculated by determining the cost per unit of energy. These units are called megawatt-hours or kilowatt-hours. For context, the rate of energy consumption is measured in kilowatts or megawatts.

As of 2016, solar is the cheapest energy resource in the world. In other words, it’s the energy resource with the lowest cost per kilowatt-hour.

What’s more, large-scale installations save the most money. In 2016 Dubai set the world record for the lowest-cost solar energy. Their massive solar array bid at under 3 cents per kilowatt-hour.

Schools and colleges often have sprawling campuses. This means they stand to benefit more than most from going solar.

Solar Energy Is Consistent

Energy costs are notoriously inconsistent.

Grid energy prices are trending upwards at a gradual but steady rate. And with natural gas prices only likely to increase, this trend is here to stay.

Electricity prices also fluctuate depending on the time of month, season, or year.

Solar energy is consistent – the only cost being the installation and upkeep of the system. Installing solar thermal panels helps insulate schools against energy rate fluctuations and increases. The more consistent the school’s energy costs, the easier it is for the school to plan and budget for the future.

Going Solar Will Improve the School’s Brand and Drive Enrollment

Young people are the most environmentally conscious in the world. Studies have found that youth aren’t shy about demanding a sustainable future and believe that investment in renewable energy is critical to achieving it.

Committing your school to sustainable practices improves its image. This, in turn, makes it more attractive to socially-conscious students.

Additionally, people associate schools and colleges with innovation and forward-thinking. Using the newest and most efficient form of energy will flag your school as a progressive establishment.

Solar Thermal Panels Are a No-Brainer

Switching to solar isn’t just great for the environment. Installing solar thermal panels will save your school money and improve your brand. And with schools like Yale and Princeton running solar on-site, you’d be in good company.

With schools and colleges working towards cleaner air for all, you can too. Here are 7 indoor plants that improve your homes air quality.

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5 Reasons You Should Hire a Digital Marketing Expert for Your Parenting Blog

Over 95% of blogs get abandoned within 4 months, according to research published in the New York Times.

They can’t generate enough interest. Bloggers get discouraged. They run out of topics. They just can’t keep up.

For these 5% of bloggers who do survive, having a digital marketing expert is quite often the key to their success.

Let’s explore why.

1) Reduce Marketing Costs

The digital marketing expert can seem like an expense. But they know how to streamline everything you do to reduce the time and money you need to spend to meet blogging goals like:

They can show you how to effectively monetize your site without annoying your core audience. Through this, marketing pays for itself.

2) Generate Endless Topics

One of the reasons blogs get abandoned is because the enthusiasm wanes. Coming up with topics around a niche that you love starts to feel like a chore.

But a great internet marketer will help you understand how to find endless topics that you’ll love to write about.

They’ll help you tap into the power of user-generated content. They’ll invite parent fans to write guest posts and other content for your blog.

Your fans will love it and so will you.

3) Get Access to Better Tools

A digital marketing expert has access to tools that the average person doesn’t have. These tools are often too expensive for someone running one blog to buy.

But because an Internet marketer is often working for several bloggers at once, they can afford the latest and greatest tools.

These tools can slash your work in half and help you better engage your audience.

4) Stay Consistent

The key to engaging a blog fan base is consistency. If you take a hiatus for a couple months or post erratically, people will lose interest.

Bloggers who try to do the digital marketing themselves often find it impossible to do everything so tasks fall behind.

But an Internet marketing professional can help streamline and automate processes to help you have a continual presence even when you need a break.

5) Get Optimized

A digital marketer will help you optimize your parenting blog for maximum exposure with less time and effort.

They’ll ask questions like…

Which parenting topics do your readers love the most?

What social media headline earned you the most shares?

Where is your traffic coming from?

But they won’t be making educated guesses. They’ll then use the power of analytics to discover what’s working best for you. They’ll then help you do more of it.

You can get optimized results like proudmummy.com/ with an expert marketer.

A Digital Marketing Expert Gets Results

Be that 5% with an expert. Reach more parents with your message. Learn how to more effectively use your time to do it. Focus on what you love and leave the rest to an expert.

What experience has your parenting blog had with teaming up with a digital marketing expert? Comment below.

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Creative Commons trademark; design by Amy Collier

For more than a decade, Creative Commons has developed and stewarded legal tools that give creators the opportunity to share their work on open terms. We have focused on tools that empower sharing at the moment of publication, leaving out an important group of creators: what about those who previously signed away their rights to their works long ago, but who now want to share on open terms under a CC license or renegotiate unfavorable publishing terms?

We are proud to announce version 1.0 of the Termination of Transfer tool (ToT tool), which will help inform creators about their ability to reclaim their rights. This newest legal tool – to be co-stewarded by Creative Commons and Authors Alliance – helps creators and authors learn about their ability to regain their rights in order to share. The ToT tool is our latest step in our mission to steward a vibrant commons through legal, social, and technical tools.

The ToT tool empowers authors to learn more about whether and when ccxauthorsalliancelogosthey may have the right to terminate the licensing arrangements for their work that prohibits them from sharing. Authors who enter into publishing, recording or other types of agreements are routinely asked to sign away their rights forever. Fortunately, there is recourse under U.S. copyright law for taking back those rights in the future. While many of these transfer agreements last “for the life of copyright” (which in the United States generally means seventy years after the author dies!), the law takes into account that these terms can ultimately be unfair to authors and artists, and so provides a mechanism for regaining those rights. An early analysis by Mike Wolfe estimates that control over more than 2.5 million works may be reclaimed by authors in the United States.

The tool is widely applicable beyond academia – anyone, including artists, photographers, scholars and scientists, can use this tool to understand more about rights they could have to regain rights they previously assigned away. While this tool is currently U.S.-based only, CC is developing a database of other country laws that enable authors and creators to similarly terminate or reclaim their rights.

One of the reasons why the tool is so remarkable is due to the complexity and technicality of the law. As Mia Garlick, CC’s first general counsel and the originator of the first ToT tool beta, noted in 2006, “the provisions are very complex and have not been frequently used [and] the termination provisions are currently so complex and technical that this tool can only serve an informational role.” When we relaunched the tool in 2015, we decided that while the tool would be primarily informational and US-based, the continued applicability of the legality would make it a worthwhile project for a global community. In 2016, we opened a public comment period for the tool.

arcadia-logoEven though the tool is now active, we’re still looking to improve it so that it is increasingly useful to all categories of content around the globe. Creative Commons and Authors Alliance are grateful to the Arcadia Fund, a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin, for their generous support of the creation of the Termination of Transfer Tool. See our full list of personnel and thank-yous at rightsback.org/about.

For more information and to try the tool, visit rightsback.org.

Read our joint press release with Authors Alliance.

The post Landmark release of Termination of Transfer tool from Creative Commons and Authors Alliance appeared first on Creative Commons.

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“It is the commitment and impact [of the organization] that is the key concern.” —Alfred Sommer, Chair of the Jury, 2017 Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award

The mission of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation is to improve health by “accelerating support for medical research through recognition of research excellence, education and advocacy.” Each year, Lasker Awards are given to scientists that embody this mission. Organizations are also eligible for awards through the Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award that alternates years with the Lasker~Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science.

 

Dr. Alfred Sommer; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

This year’s recipient of the Public Service Award is Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), “for providing essential health services and reproductive care to millions of women for more than a century.” PPFA began in Brooklyn, New York, where in 1916 Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the US; in 1942 the organization changed its name from The American Birth Control League to Planned Parenthood. To place the 2017 Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award in context, PLOS interviewed Chair of the Jury Alfred Sommer, University Distinguished Service Professor and Dean Emeritus, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

With this award, PPFA joins other collaborative efforts including Médecins Sans Frontières, Bill & Melinda Gates and the NIH Clinical Center as Lasker Public Service Awardees. Since recent previous awardees in this category were individuals, PLOS asked Sommer what does this say about how science and medicine work today, or about the efforts needed to impact human health. “The intent of the Public Service Award has always been recognition of contributions to expanding investments in biomedical/health research and advancing the public’s health,” he responds. “In recent years there has been slightly greater attention paid to the latter, and therefore to the individuals and institutions that have made a real difference.”

Sommer was circumspect and honest when asked to reflect on the timing of the committee’s decision process, in relation to political discourse in the US at that time over the proposal to replace the Affordable Care Act with a plan that would defund approximately 40% of Planned Parenthood’s annual budget. “The discussion is always free-wheeling, and every member is free to raise whatever perspectives they like,” he says. “I am not at liberty to discuss the actual vote, but I can say there was broad agreement with this year’s choice (as there usually is every year, once the discussion and votes are taken).” He continues that the Lasker Awards are “meant to recognize extraordinary achievements, and bring these achievements to the attention of the public. It was no different in this case.”

The origin story of Planned Parenthood is fascinating. While family planning may be the founding service, it’s likely the public doesn’t realize the breadth of services offered by the organization, from sex education programs that reach 1.5 million people annually to over 4 million tests and treatments to both men and women (in 2015 alone) for sexually transmitted infections. “The purpose of all Lasker Awards is to better inform the public about the individual, work, and organization that is being honored,” says Sommer. In recognizing PPFA, he continues, “we would hope that the public will have a better understanding of all the contributions to health made by PPFA.”

While publications and publicity are not a requirement for receipt of the Public Service Award, placing this type of information into the public domain helps to inform policy and to improve health outcomes. Among the PLOS journals, two articles have corresponding or contributing authors affiliated with PPFA. In the recent PLOS ONE article, “Parents’ views on sex education in schools: How much do Democrats and Republicans agree?” researchers from Planned Parenthood found that comprehensive sex education is supported by a vast majority of parents, both Democrats and Republicans.

In the PLOS Medicine article, “Comparison of Outcomes before and after Ohio’s Law Mandating Use of the FDA-Approved Protocol for Medication Abortion: A Retrospective Cohort Study” researchers followed outcomes of a law that took effect in 2011 requiring abortion providers to follow specific US Food and Drug Administration guidelines, created in 2000, when giving patients a combination of two drugs to induce abortion. Their findings, covered by The Guardian and Los Angeles Times, indicate that women experienced a higher rate of complications and were nearly three times more likely to require additional medical intervention after the law was implemented.

Some say that receiving a Lasker Award hints at prediction of a Nobel Prize. To put this attention to awards and prizes in context, it’s worth understanding the compelling origins and motivations of the Lasker Foundation directly from “The Lasker Legacy” video. After watching you might want to make your voice heard through suggested resources on the PLOS Stand Up for Science webpage. Work from individual scientists receiving this year’s Lasker Awards is described in a previous post.

 

Image Credit:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Doug Jordan; Public Health Image Library

*************

Alfred Sommer is University Distinguished Service Professor and Gilman Scholar, Johns Hopkins University; Dean Emeritus and Professor of Epidemiology and International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Professor of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He served as Dean of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health from 1990-2005. Sommer is a member of both the National Academy of Science and the National Academy of Medicine, and chaired the Board (on which he still serves) of the Lasker Foundation from 2008-2014. His research interests include outcomes assessment, child survival, epidemiology of visual disorders, glaucoma, vitamin A deficiency, blindness prevention strategies, cost-benefit analysis, the growing interface between medicine and public health, and clinical guidelines. He is most widely known for and received the 1997 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award for his work on Vitamin A therapy for preventing infections and blindness. Sommer served as Chair of the Jury for the 2017 Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award.

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Minister of Education, Science and Sport, Dr. Maja Makovec Brenčič. By: Slovenian Press Agency. CC BY 4.0

30 ministers of education and 690 members of the open education community (140 of them virtual) from 111 nations convened in Ljubljana, Slovenia at the 2nd OER World Congress with the goal of mainstreaming open education to meet the education targets in the United Nations SDG4. In addition to the 3-day Congress program, there were 21 satellite sessions with presentations about artificial intelligence to copyright reform to regional OER networks. Creative Commons was excited to participate in sessions, give a keynote (text / video), help draft key documents, and meet with ministers and other open education leaders from around the world.

This Congress comes after six regional consultations attended by 257 participants from 105 countries, and five years after the 1st World OER Congress where UNESCO member states unanimously approved the 2012 Paris OER Declaration.

The theme of the Congress: “OER for Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education: From Commitment to Action” – called for governments to take action. After extensive consultation with the global open education community, the 2017 Ljubljana OER Action Plan (English / French) was unanimously adopted. The attending Ministers further supported this call to action with a Minsters Statement (English / French).

The 2017 Ljubljana OER Action Plan focuses on five areas for government action:

1. Building the capacity of users to find, re-use, create and share OER
2. Language and cultural issues
3. Ensuring inclusive and equitable access to quality OER
4. Developing sustainability models
5. Developing supportive policy environments

Congratulations to everyone who helped move the world to this moment! Now the hard work begins. Open education advocates, NGOs and IGOs need to help national governments and their ministries / departments of education to accomplish the “suggested actions” in each of these five areas.

Now is the time for governments to review their national and SDG4 education goals, and ask if their existing financial and procurement structures are optimized to mainstream open education. Now is the time for national governments to act:

The Creative Commons global network looks forward to working with our NGO and IGO partners to help governments realize the actions called for in the 2017 Ljubljana OER Action Plan.

Let’s get to work.

Additional Resources:

The post 2nd World OER Congress + 2017 Ljubljana OER Action Plan appeared first on Creative Commons.

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Each year, the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation recognizes research excellence with a set of three awards given for major advances in the “understanding, diagnosis, treatment, cure or prevention of human disease.” This year’s awards were given for Basic Medical Research, Clinical Medical Research and Public Service.

The Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award was given to Michael N. Hall for discovery of and investigations into “nutrient-activated TOR proteins and their central role in the metabolic control of cell growth.” TOR (Target of Rapamycin) is a highly conserved protein and a central regulator through its role as a nutrient sensor, coupling nutrient availability to protein synthesis and cell growth. A critical signaling protein, TOR forms multiprotein associations that function as distinct clusters, either as TORC1 (TOR Complex 1) or TORC2 (TOR Complex 2), depending upon those additional proteins. In their 2007 PLOS ONE article, Hall and colleagues identified novel TOR interacting proteins specific for each complex, investigating the role of phosphorylation and complex function for each. More recently, work from the Hall group published in PLOS Genetics demonstrated a role for TORC1 in bone formation and, in yeast cells, characterized the signaling state of the TORC1 complex with the use of antibody tools.

The Lasker~DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award was jointly awarded to John Schiller and Douglas Lowy for their collaborative efforts, innovations and ”technological advances that enabled development of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines for prevention of cervical cancer and other tumors caused by human papillomaviruses.” Papillomavirus infection on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals can cause benign warts (papillomas) or malignancies, especially anogenital carcinomas, and in genetically predisposed or immunocompromised individuals can cause skin cancer. Development of safe and effective vaccines has potential to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other malignancies resulting from HPV.

Schiller and Lowry collaborated on three articles published with PLOS. In the early days of PLOS Pathogens, they demonstrated that carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red algae, was an extremely potent infection inhibitor for sexually transmitted genital HPVs. Their most recent joint publication (also in PLOS Pathogens) investigates papillomavirus in various mouse models, to gain insights into immune system influences on infection progression in humans. These articles, together with results of a clinical trial of bivalent HPV vaccination have received nearly 83,000 views. For further reading in PLOS journals, view Schiller’s  and Lowy’s publication lists.

The Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award alternates years with the Lasker~Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science. For more on this year’s Public Service Award, given to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, check back next week for our interview with Chair of the Jury Alfred Sommer.

In publishing their work Open Access, these outstanding scientists and citizens advance medicine, public health and basic research for the benefit of all. PLOS celebrates their work and dedication.

 

Image Credit: Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation

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Hoje, a Creative Commons publicou uma análise do projeto de capítulo de propriedade intelectual do acordo de livre comércio entre a União Europeia e o Mercosul, que abarca diversos aspectos vinculados a direitos de autor e direitos conexos. Nós examinamos questões que seriam prejudiciais ao domínio público, à criatividade e ao compartilhamento, e envolvendo os direitos dos usuários na era digital.

A União Europeia (UE) e o sub-bloco regional da América Latina, formado por Argentina, Brasil, Paraguai e Uruguai (o Mercosul) vêm negociando um tratado de livre comércio (TLC) desde o ano 2000. O TLC UE-Mercosul é amplo, abarcando o comércio de bens industriais e agrícolas, potenciais mudanças nas regras aplicáveis a pequenas e médias empresas e às compras públicas, e provisões sobre propriedade intelectual como patentes e direitos de autor e direitos conexos.  As negociações para um TLC UE-Mercosul continuam em um momento em que vários dos países afetados — incluindo Argentina, Uruguai, Paraguai e até a União Europeia — encontram-se em um processo de revisão de suas próprias leis de direitos autorais.

Apenas alguns capítulos do projeto do TLC UE-Mercosul foram disponibilizados ao público. Em novembro de 2016, a União Europeia publicou uma proposta de capítulo sobre propriedade intelectual, que é a versão mais recente disponível publicamente. Organizações da sociedade civil e o público são geralmente excluídas de participar em — ou de até observar — as reuniões de negociação.

As negociações do TLC UE-Mercosul acontecem em um contexto de ampliação da construção de políticas de direitos autorais por meio de acordos de comércio multilaterais. Existem diversas negociações em curso, incluindo o Tratado Trans-Pacífico (TPP), a Associação Econômica Regional Ampla (RCEP, na sua sigla em inglês), e a renegociação do Tratado de Livre Comércio da América do Norte (TLCAN).

Cada um desses acordos inclui provisões que regulam a propriedade intelectual, e as recentes rodadas de negociação desses pactos comerciais mostram que, quando se põem  os direitos autorais em jogo, há uma pressão significativa para a incrementar drasticamente as possibilidades que têm os detentores de direitos de solicitar medidas de observância (enforcement) de seus direitos, junto com pressões para aumentar os prazos de duração dos direitos autorais, e exigir sanções mais severas por infrações. Ao mesmo tempo que as demandas dos titulares de direitos são completamente atendidas, pouquíssima consideração é dada aos direitos do público. As limitações e exceções para os direitos autorais são minimizadas, ou sequer estão presentes. No texto em questão, é perceptível a mão invisível (e poderosa) da União Europeia, que deseja exportar as cláusulas mais benéficas para os detentores de direitos (como maiores prazos de proteção harmonizados), mas só quer permitir o mínimo absoluto quando se tratam de limitações e exceções (admitindo apenas a cópia temporária).

  • A extensão dos prazos de proteção dos direitos autorais é desnecessária e injustificada: O texto provisório do capítulo sobre propriedade intelectual propõe estender a duração da proteção do direito de autor para aqueles países que ainda não aderiram ao prazo de 70 anos após a morte (o chamado vida + 70). Aumentar a duração da proteção do direito de autor posterga o ingresso das obras no domínio público, no qual elas podem ser utilizadas por qualquer um para qualquer propósito. Também exacerba problemas relacionados ao longo prazo de proteção, como o problema das obras órfãs.
  • Os direitos dos usuários devem ser protegidos mediante a expansão das limitações e exceções: a proteção do direito de autor e as medidas de penalização sempre devem ser reguladas reconhecendo e defendendo os direitos dos usuários no ecossistema do direito de autor e direitos conexos. Mas o capítulo de propriedade intelectual não inclui salvaguardas similares às incluídas nos mais recentes acordos comerciais e nos acordos internacionais de direito de autor que promovem e protegem o equilíbrio.
  • A remuneração obrigatória frustra as intenções de alguns licenciantes em Creative Commons: o capítulo de propriedade intelectual inclui uma cláusula que exigiria a remuneração obrigatória para os intérpretes e produtores de obras musicais. Essa provisão pode ser bem intencionada, mas interferiria com a operação de algumas licenças de Creative Commons ao requerer um pagamento mesmo quando a intenção do autor é compartilhar sua obra com o mundo de maneira gratuita.
  • Medidas de proteção tecnológica não devem limitar o exercício dos direitos dos usuários: o capítulo de propriedade intelectual inclui proibições à circunvenção de medidas tecnológicas de proteção para ter acesso a uma obra, assim como uma provisão que proibiria a criação e o compartilhamento de tecnologias que poderiam permitir a um usuário circunvencionar medidas tecnológicas de proteção. O problema é que essa provisão não leva em conta situações nas quais os usuários deveriam poder utilizar uma limitação ou exceção, mas não o podem fazer devido às proibições existentes para circunvencionar uma medida tecnológica.
  • Ordens judiciais preventivas contra infrações “iminentes” prejudicam a liberdade de expressão e a certeza jurídicas: o capítulo de propriedade intelectual introduz a ideia de que, por ordem judicial, tanto infratores quanto intermediários (o que inclui os provedores de serviços) poderiam ser obrigados a tomar providências para “prevenir qualquer infração iminente de um direito de propriedade intelectual”.
  • Negociações de acordos comerciais devem ser transparentes e envolver o público: Negociações de acordos comerciais devem ser transparentes e participativas. E não o são. A confidencialidade demonstrada na negociação do TPP e de outros tratados de livre comércio têm deixado organizações como a Creative Commons e o público em geral em extrema desvantagem, na medida em que apenas poucos atores privilegiados convidados ao círculo fechado de negociação tiveram seus interesses plenamente considerados.

Para ler nosso documento de análise completo, clique aqui.

The post Tratado de livre comércio União Europeia-Mercosul prejudicaria os direitos dos usuários e o conjunto de bens comuns (commons) appeared first on Creative Commons.

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