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Hoy Creative Commons publicó un análisis del borrador del capítulo de propiedad intelectual del acuerdo de libre comercio entre la Unión Europea y el Mercosur, que abarca varios aspectos vinculados al derecho de autor. Examinamos cuestiones que irían en detrimento del dominio público y serían perjudiciales para la creatividad, el intercambio y para los derechos de los usuarios en la era digital.

La Unión Europea (UE) y el sub bloque regional de América Latina conformado por Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay (el Mercosur) han estado negociando un tratado de libre comercio (TLC) desde el año 2000. El TLC UE-Mercosur es expansivo y abarca el comercio en bienes industriales y agrícolas, cambios potenciales en las reglas aplicables a pequeñas y medianas empresas así como a las compras públicas y a las provisiones sobre propiedad intelectual tales como las patentes y el derecho de autor. Las negociaciones para un TLC UE-Mercosur continúan en un momento en que varios de los países afectados -incluidos Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay e incluso la Unión Europea- se encuentran en un proceso de revisión de sus propias leyes de derecho de autor.

Solo algunos capítulos de los borradores del TLC UE-Mercosur están disponibles para la revisión pública. En noviembre de 2016 la Unión Europea liberó un borrador del capítulo sobre propiedad intelectual, que es la versión más reciente disponible públicamente. Las organizaciones de la sociedad civil y el público son típicamente excluidas de participar en —o incluso observar — las reuniones de negociación.

Las negociaciones del TLC UE-Mercosur tienen lugar en un entorno donde un nivel creciente de políticas de derecho de autor están siendo creadas a través de acuerdos de comercio multilaterales. Hay varias negociaciones en marcha, incluyendo el Tratado Trans-Pacífico (TPP), y la renegociación del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN).

Cada uno de estos acuerdos incluyen cláusulas que regulan la propiedad intelectual, y las recientes rondas de negociaciones de estos pactos comerciales muestran que cuando se pone el derecho de autor sobre la mesa, hay una presión significativa para incrementar drásticamente las posibilidades que tienen los titulares de derechos de solicitar medidas de persecución y ejecución forzada de sus derechos, junto con presiones para aumentar los plazos de duración del derecho de autor y exigir sanciones más severas por infracción. Mientras que las demandas de los titulares de derechos son completamente atendidas, hay muy poca consideración para los derechos del público. Se minimizan las limitaciones y excepciones al derecho de autor o directamente no se contemplan. En el texto vemos la mano invisible (y poderosa) de la Unión Europea, que desea exportar las cláusulas más beneficiosas para los titulares de derechos (tales como plazos de protección más largos y armonizados), pero solo quiere permitir lo mínimo posible cuando se trata de limitaciones y excepciones (admitiendo únicamente la copia temporal).

  • La extensión de los plazos de protección del derecho de autor es innecesaria e injustificada: el capítulo borrador sobre propiedad intelectual propone extender la duración del plazo de protección para aquellos países que todavía no adhieren al plazo de +70 post-mortem. Incrementar la duración de la protección del derecho de autor demora el ingreso de las obras al dominio público, donde pueden ser utilizadas por cualquiera para cualquier propósito. También exacerba problemas relacionados al largo plazo de protección, como el problema de las obras huérfanas.
  • Los derechos de los usuarios deben ser protegidos mediante la expansión de las limitaciones y las excepciones: la protección del derecho de autor y las medidas de penalización siempre deben regularse reconociendo y defendiendo los derechos de los usuarios en el ecosistema del derecho de autor. Pero el capítulo de propiedad intelectual no incluye salvaguardas similares a las incluidas en los últimos acuerdos comerciales y en los acuerdos internacionales de derecho de autor que promueven y protegen el balance en el derecho de autor.
  • La remuneración obligatoria frustra las intenciones de algunos usuarios de Creative Commons: el capítulo de propiedad intelectual incluye una cláusula que requeriría la remuneración obligatoria para los intérpretes y productores de obras musicales. Esa cláusula puede ser bien intencionada, pero interferiría con la operación de algunas licencias de Creative Commons al requerir un pago incluso cuando la intención del autor es compartir su obra con el mundo de manera gratuita.
  • Las medidas tecnológicas de protección no deben limitar el ejercicio de los derechos de los usuarios: el capítulo de propiedad intelectual incluye prohibiciones para aquellos que eludan medidas tecnológicas de protección para obtener acceso a una obra, así como una cláusula que prohibiría la creación y el intercambio de tecnologías que podrían permitir a un usuario eludir medidas tecnológicas de protección. El problema es que esta cláusula no tiene en cuenta situaciones donde los usuarios deberían poder utilizar una limitación o excepción, pero no pueden debido a las prohibiciones existentes para evadir una medida tecnológica.
  • Las órdenes judiciales preventivas contra infracciones “inminentes” dañan la libertad de expresión y la certeza jurídica: el capítulo de propiedad intelectual introduce la idea de que una orden judicial podría ser impuesta tanto a los infractores potenciales como a los intermediarios (incluyendo a los proveedores de servicios de Internet) por infracción “inminente” a los derechos de autor que aún no han ocurrido.
  • Las negociaciones de los acuerdos comerciales deben ser transparentes e involucrar al público: las negociaciones de acuerdos comerciales necesitan ser transparentes y participativas. No lo son. El secretismo demostrado en la negociación del TPP y otros TLC dejaron a las organizaciones de la sociedad civil como Creative Commons y al público en general en una desventaja extrema, ya que solo unos pocos sectores privilegiados invitados al círculo cerrado de las negociaciones tuvieron sus intereses plenamente considerados.

Pueden leer nuestro documento de análisis completo aquí.

The post El tratado de libre comercio Unión Europea-Mercosur dañará los comunes y los derechos de los usuarios appeared first on Creative Commons.

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Today Creative Commons published a policy analysis covering several copyright-related issues presented in the draft intellectual property chapter of EU-Mercosur free trade agreement. We examine issues that would be detrimental to the public domain, creativity and sharing, and user rights in the digital age. [The policy paper is also available in Spanish and Portuguese.] 

The European Union (EU) and the Latin American sub-regional bloc consisting of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay (Mercosur) have been negotiating a free trade agreement (FTA) since 2000. The EU-Mercosur FTA is expansive, addressing trade in industrial and agricultural goods, potential changes to rules governing small- and medium-sized businesses as well as government procurement, and intellectual property provisions such as copyrights and patents. The EU-Mercosur FTA negotiations continue during a time when several of the affected countries—including Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and even the EU—are involved in a review of their own copyright rules.

Only a few chapters of the draft EU-Mercosur FTA have been made available for public inspection. In November 2016 the EU released a draft of the chapter dealing with intellectual property, which is the most recent publicly available version. Civil society organisations and the public are typically excluded from participating in—or even observing—the negotiation meetings.

The EU-Mercosur FTA negotiations take place in an environment where an increasing level of copyright policy is being constructed through multilateral trade agreements. There are several current negotiations underway, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Each of these agreements include provisions regulating intellectual property, and the recent negotiation of these trade pacts shows that when copyright is put on the table, there’s a significant push to drastically increase enforcement measures for rights holders, lengthen copyright terms, and demand harsh infringement penalties. While the demands of rights holders are fully addressed, there’s little consideration given to the rights of the public. Limitations and exceptions to copyright are downplayed, or not present at all. In the text we see the invisible (and powerful) hand of the EU, which wishes to export the intellectual property provisions most beneficial to rightsholders (such as harmonized longer terms), but only wants to permit the absolute minimum when it comes to limitations and exceptions (such as only temporary copying).

  • Copyright term extension is unnecessary and unwarranted: The draft IP chapter proposes to extend the duration of copyright protection for those countries that do not already adhere to the life + 70 year term. Increasing the duration of copyright protection delays works from entering the public domain, where they may be used by anyone for any purpose. It also exacerbates related challenges, such as the orphan works problem. 
  • User rights must be protected by expanding limitations and exceptions: Copyright protection and enforcement measures should always be tempered by recognizing and upholding the rights of users in the copyright ecosystem. But the IPR chapter doesn’t include similar safeguards introduced in the latest trade agreements and international copyright agreements that promote and protect balance in copyright agreements.
  • Mandatory remuneration frustrates the intentions of some Creative Commons licensors: The IPR chapter includes a provision that would require remuneration for performers and producers of musical works. The provision may be well-intended, but would interfere with the operation of some Creative Commons licenses by requiring a payment even when the intention of the author is to share her creative work with the world for free.
  • Technical protection measures must not limit the exercise of user rights: The IPR chapter includes prohibitions to circumventing technological protection measures to gain access to a work, as well as  a provision that would prohibit the creation and sharing of technologies that could enable a user to circumvent technological protection measures. The problem is that it doesn’t take into account situations where users should be able to leverage a limitation or exception, but cannot due to prohibitions on circumventing a technological measure.
  • Precautionary injunctions against “imminent” infringements harms freedom of expression and the rule of law: The IPR chapter introduces the idea that an injunction could be levied against both potential infringers and intermediaries (including ISPs) for “imminent” copyright infringements that have not yet occurred.
  • Trade agreement negotiations must be transparent and involve the public: Trade agreement negotiations need to be transparent and participatory. They are not. The secrecy demonstrated in the negotiation of the TPP and other FTAs left civil society organizations like Creative Commons and the broader public at an extreme disadvantage, as only a privileged few stakeholders invited into the closed negotiation circle had their interests fully considered.

Read our extended policy paper here. The text is also available in Spanish and Portuguese.

The post EU-Mercosur Trade Agreement Would Harm User Rights and the Commons appeared first on Creative Commons.

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The Free Software Foundation Europe and a broad group of organisations including Creative Commons are supporting the Public Money, Public Code campaign. The initiative calls for the adoption of policies that require that software paid for by the public be made broadly available as Free and Open Source Software. Nearly 40 organisations and over 6200 individuals have already supported this action by signing the open letter. You can sign it too.

We know that publicly funded educational materials and scientific research should be made available under open licenses for maximum access and reuse by everyone.

The same goes for the digital infrastructure of publicly-funded software. Unfortunately, governments around the world tend to procure mostly proprietary software, and the restrictive licenses that come with it limits our rights as citizens to use (and improve) these tools funded through the public purse and developed for the public good.

Make your voice heard today. The campaign organiser will deliver the signatures to European representatives who are debating software freedom in public administration.


Public Money? Public Code! from Free Software Foundation Europe on Vimeo.

The post Sign the Petition: Public Money Should Produce Public Code appeared first on Creative Commons.

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cc-on-slack

Almost a year ago, we announced that our community’s real time communications were migrating from IRC to Slack. As we pass 1,000 active users, we want to take a moment to give gratitude to our community for making it happen.

active users

1,000+ active users

More than 450 of our users joined Slack in our first month and a half, an incredible lift for us. Read more about our first month of Slack on the blog.

We’ve grown consistently since then, but our next big influx of community came this week, when our Open Education Platform launched. #cc-openedu is now our most populous channel outside of #general and #announcements, with 167 participants collaborating daily in the channel. We expect an increasing number of people signing up in all our platforms with the launch of our exciting new Global Network Strategy.

Our community as a whole hosts 250 Weekly Active Users sending approximately 1,000 messages per day. However, certain days are definitely busier than others: after we sent out our invitation to our Global Summit attendees to join us on Slack, our engagement shot up to 1,700 messages in one day in April. The community is friendly and welcoming, and we try to say hello to every member who joins and posts!

hello-to-new-friends

 

35 Public Channels

35 public channels feels like a lot of channels, but the number of access points allows members to hop into (and out of) any of our global communities or programs with ease. The many channels allow us to open up our work to the world and facilitate communication between a variety of users on six continents. (We’re not yet in Antarctica – anyone want to start a chapter?)

In addition to our 1,000 members milestone, we’re nearing another important landmark: The CC Community has sent nearly 200,000 messages! We’re talking a lot between each other – more than 50% of our messages are sent via Direct Messages to develop our close-knit, relational culture of Community Builders.

where-p

To call out some of our favorite channels, #cc-openedu is acting as a catalyst and inspiration for other network-platform based communities, with more than 60 users regularly posting messages and a channel membership of 166. The #general and #announcements channels remain incredibly popular, with over 1,000 total members and 100 daily active users, as does, of course, #cc-animals, which provides all the cuteness from the commons. Want to learn more about how we work? #cc-culture-club has you covered! While most of our chatter is about the commons, we can also get silly in the #random channel.

random-talk

We’ve also been excited to see the growth of users in global communities like #cc-europe, #cc-canada, and #cc-arabworld.

pleasant chatter

A vision for community growth

Our adoption of Slack has seriously grown our capacity as a network and as a community. We’ve been able to use the platform to chat, connect, and collaborate across disciplines. Through Slack, we’re privileging accessibility and community in order to reach our goals as a connected, growing network.

Our next steps include possible Slack chats, more fun, (like these Slack awards,) and frankly, who knows what else? Our community surprises us every day.

If you haven’t yet joined us, please do! We’d love to meet you.

The post Lessons learned from a year of Slack, 1000 members, and immeasurable community growth appeared first on Creative Commons.

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Shimla is one of the most sought after hill stations of northern India where tourists flock in large number throughout the year. This beautiful hill retreat is situated in the lap of lower Himalaya’s… [Author: Caper Travel – November 15, 2011]

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The first portion of a complete body sculpting routine for men is the upper body routine. Because many men are already comfortable with exercise for this area of the body, it’;s generally the part of … [Author: Milburn olin – November 15, 2011]

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With offices getting to be increasingly bigger and the noise amounts that arrive with a larger office, companies of ceiling tiles have launched acoustic tiles which ensure to reduce the quantity of n… [Author: Gitana Stonkiene – November 15, 2011]

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Hypnotherapy was first discovered in the ancient times by the Greeks, Romans and Egyptians as a healing art. Until today, it has evolved over the generations and has been used to treat a variety of i… [Author: Khaiyong Ng – November 15, 2011]

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Everyone has considered learning to play the piano at some point in their lives. Playing the piano is a favorite pastime of many. Now there is a piece of good news for piano aspirants. They can learn… [Author: Piano Play It – November 15, 2011]

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